Post Civil War (1949–present)

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Post Civil War (1949–present)

Post  meodingu on Thu Jan 06, 2011 7:00 pm

Post Civil War (1949–present)
Main articles: History of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China on Taiwan
See also: History of Hong Kong, History of Macau, and History of Taiwan

Territories currently administered by two states that formally use the name China:
the PRC (in purple) and the ROC (in orange).

After its victory in the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Mao Zedong gained control of most of Mainland China. On 1 October 1949, they established the People's Republic of China as a Socialist State headed by a "Democratic Dictatorship" with the CPC as the ruling political party, thus, laying claim as the successor state of the ROC. The central government of the Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the island of Taiwan that it had administered at the end of World War II, and moved the ROC government there. Major armed hostilities ceased in 1950 but no peace treaty has been signed.

Beginning in the late 1970s, the Republic of China began the implementation of full, multi-party, representative democracy in the territories still under its control (Taiwan, and a number of smaller islands including Quemoy and Matsu). Today, the ROC has active political participation by all sectors of society. The main cleavage in ROC politics is the issue of eventual political unification with the Chinese mainland vs. formal independence of Taiwan.

Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.

After the Chinese Civil War, mainland China saw a dramatic improvement on life expectancy, leading to an explosion in population.[41][42][43] A series of disruptive socioeconomic movements started in the late 1950s with the Great Leap Forward and continued in the 1960s with the Cultural Revolution. The Great Chinese Famine resulted in an estimated 30 to 36 million deaths.[44][45] With the death of its first generation Communist Party leaders such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, the PRC began implementing a series of political and economic reforms advocated by Deng Xiaoping that eventually formed the foundation for mainland China's rapid economic development starting in the 1990s.

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